61 days, more than 40 persons died, most of them children. It marked the single largest Indian removal in Indiana history. Yellow River band at Twin Lakes refused to leave, even after the August 5, 1838, treaty deadline for departure had passed. On August clouds rest trail map pdf, 1838, Tipton and his men surprised the Potawatomi at Twin Lakes, where they surrounded the village and gathered the remaining Potawatomi together for their removal to Kansas.
Catholic missionary at Twin Lakes, joined his parishioners on their difficult journey from Indiana, across Illinois and Missouri, into Kansas. Missouri passed similar legislation in 1996. Historic highway signs have been placed along the way in Indiana in Marshall, Fulton, Cass, Carroll, Tippecanoe and Warren counties, signaling each turn. Many signs have been erected in Illinois and Missouri. Kansas has completed placing highway signs in the three counties crossed by the Trail of Death. Indiana, and a strip across southern Michigan. They had become the second-largest Native American tribal group in Indiana.
British in the hopes of expelling American colonists encroaching on their lands. Following that period, the Potawatomi lived in relative peace with their white neighbors. Around the same time, the state and federal government became eager to open the northern parts of Indiana to settlement and development by European Americans. Under treaties between the US government and the Potawatomi in 1818, 1821, 1826, and 1828, the native people ceded large portions of their lands in Indiana to the federal government in exchange for annuities in cash and goods, reservation lands within the state, and other provisions. Some tribal members also received individual grants of northern Indiana land. Other Indian tribes already controlled large territories there. Potawatomi ceded to the federal government most of their remaining lands in northwestern and north central Indiana in exchange for annuities, small reservation lands in Indiana, and scattered allotments to individuals.
They also received the federal government’s agreement to provide goods to support the Potawatomi migration efforts, should they decide to relocate. Under the terms of a treaty made on October 26, 1832, the federal government established Potawatomi reservation lands within the boundaries of their previously ceded lands in Indiana and Illinois in exchange for annuities, cash and goods, and payment of tribal debts, among other provisions. Chief Menominee’s signature was recorded with an “x” on the treaty of 1832. Trail of Death” to Kansas in 1838.
Increased pressure from federal government negotiators, especially Colonel Abel C. Pepper, succeeded in getting the Potawatomi to sign more treaties that ceded their lands and obtained their agreement to move to reservations in the West. In treaties negotiated from December 4, 1834 to February 11, 1837, the Potawatomi ceded the remaining reservation lands in Indiana to the federal government. These agreement were called the Whiskey Treaties because whiskey was given to get the Indians to sign. Under the terms of these treaties the Potawatomi agreed to sell their Indiana land to the federal government and move to reservation lands in the West within two years.
One treaty that directly led to the forced removal of the Potawatomi from Twin Lakes was made at Yellow River on August 5, 1836. Under its terms, the Potawatomi ceded the Menominee Reserve, established under an 1832 treaty, to the federal government and agreed to remove west of the Mississippi River within two years. 14,080 for the sale of their 14,080 acres of Indiana reservation lands, after payment of tribal debts were deducted from the proceeds. Chief Menominee and seventeen of the Yellow River band refused to take part in the negotiations and did not recognize the treaty’s authority over their land. There is no record of a reply to their petition. 1836 and 1837, but the federal government refused to change its position. By 1837 some of the Potawatomi bands had peacefully removed to their new lands in Kansas.
By August 5, 1838, the deadline for removal from Indiana, most of the Potawatomi had already left, but Chief Menominee and his band at Twin Lakes refused to move. The following day, August 6, 1838, Col. Pepper called a council at Menominee’s village at Twin Lakes, where he explained that the Potawatomi had ceded land in Indiana under the treaty, and they had to remove. I have not sold my lands. I will not sell them. I have not signed any treaty, and will not sign any. I am not going to leave my lands, and I do not want to hear anything more about it.