Encyclopedia of the brethren of purity pdf

Although none of his works have survived, his opinions had been preserved through his critics, Muslim apologists and the surviving books that answered him. Al-Rawandi abandoned Islam for atheism and used his knowledge of Islam, learned from his father, to refute the Quran. Scholars also try to account encyclopedia of the brethren of purity pdf the more positive view of Ibn al-Rawandi in some Muslim sources.

Van Ess notes that the sources which portray Ibn al-Rawandi as a heretic are predominantly Mutazilite and stem from Iraq, whereas in eastern texts he appears in a more positive light. As an explanation for this difference, van Ess suggests “a collision of two different intellectual traditions,” i. In other words, van Ess believes that Ibn al-Rawandi, although admittedly eccentric and disputatious, was not a heretic at all. He rejected the authority of any scriptural or revealed religion. Prophet to observe his deeds.

Reports given by such a small number of people cannot be trusted, for such a small group can easily have conspired to lie. These religious traditions are lies endorsed by conspiracies. Ibn al-Rawandi also points out specific Muslim traditions, and tries to show that they are laughable. The tradition that the angels rallied round to help Muhammad is not logical, because it implies that the angels of Badr were weaklings, able to kill only seventy of the Prophet’s enemies. And if the angels were willing to help Muhammad at Badr, where were they at Uhud, when their help was so badly needed? The plentiful extracts from the K.

Prophets, persons who may reasonably be compared to sorcerers and magicians, are pure invention, and the greatest of the miracles in the eyes of orthodox Muslims, the Quran, gets no better treatment: it is neither a revealed book nor even an inimitable literary masterpiece. 10th century beyond the borders of Muslim literature. 1, New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Medieval Islamic Civilization By Josef W. Encyclopedia Iranica, “EBN RĀVANDĪ, ABU’l-ḤOSAYN AḤMAD” b.

The blinding emerald: Ibn al-Rawandi’s ‘Kitab al-Zumurrud. This page was last edited on 28 December 2017, at 12:27. This article is semi-protected until November 19, 2018. This article is about a historical group of Muslims.