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Harry Edmar Schulz, et al. Rebecca Wright, Sandra Johnson, Steven J. Pursuit of Power: NASA’s Propulsion Systems Laboratory No. Adrian Thomas Sobotta, et al. Engineering Staff Analog Devices Inc. Paul Mac Berthouex , Linfield C. Wear is related to interactions between surfaces and specifically the removal and deformation of material on a surface as a result of mechanical action of the opposite surface.
The size of the generated particles may vary from millimeter range down to an ion range. This process may occur by contact with other metals, nonmetallic solids, flowing liquids, or solid particles or liquid droplets entrained in flowing gasses. Wear can also be defined as a process where interaction between two surfaces or bounding faces of solids within the working environment results in dimensional loss of one solid, with or without any actual decoupling and loss of material. New, left, shows no wear. Right, used, show obvious wear from being driven clockwise. Primary stage or early run-in period, where surfaces adapt to each other and the wear-rate might vary between high and low.
Secondary stage or mid-age process, where a steady rate of ageing is in motion. Most of the components operational life is comprised in this stage. Tertiary stage or old-age period, where the components are subjected to rapid failure due to a high rate of ageing. The secondary stage is shortened with increasing severity of environmental conditions such as higher temperatures, strain rates, stress and sliding velocities etc. Note that, wear rate is strongly influenced by the operating conditions.
Specifically, normal loads and sliding speeds play a pivotal role in determining wear rate. In addition, tribo-chemical reaction is also important in order to understand the wear behavior. Different oxide layers are developed during the sliding motion. The layers are originated from complex interaction among surface, lubricants, and environmental molecules. In general, a single plot, namely wear map. In explicit wear tests simulating industrial conditions between metallic surfaces, there are no clear chronological distinction between different wear-stages due to big overlaps and symbiotic relations between various friction mechanisms.
The complex nature of wear has delayed its investigations and resulted in isolated studies towards specific wear mechanisms or processes. A number of different wear processes are also commonly encountered and presented in the literature. Impact-, cavitation-, diffusive- and corrosive- wear are all such examples. These wear mechanisms, however, do not necessarily act independently and wear mechanisms are not mutually exclusive.
Industrial Wear” are commonly described as incidence of multiple wear mechanisms occurring in unison. Another way to describe “Industrial Wear” is to define clear distinctions in how different friction mechanisms operate, for example distinguish between mechanisms with high or low energy density. The friccohesity defines fine distribution of the similar particles into networking of dissimilar particles by weakening their own cohesion or cohesive forces and leading to establish a stronger binding with dissimilar particles noted as inter-particle binding. Two separate mechanisms operate between the surfaces. 7 electrons, Hg with full octet.