Hemp diseases and pests management and biological control pdf

It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried hemp diseases and pests management and biological control pdf. Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter.

Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves. The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself” and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used.

The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage. Sailors complained that it caused them digestive problems. Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as quickly as regular bread.

Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. H ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America. Cassava is a highly productive crop in terms of food calories produced per unit land area per unit of time, significantly higher than other staple crops.

Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop. Worldwide, 800 million people depend on cassava as their primary food staple. No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple.

46 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten. Cassava can be cooked in many ways.

The root of the sweet variety has a delicate flavor and can replace potatoes. The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important.

Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling. In its prepared forms in which its toxic or unpleasant components have been reduced to acceptable levels, it contains an extremely high proportion of starch. Compared to most staples however, cassava accordingly is a poorer dietary source of protein and most other essential nutrients. Though an important staple, its main value is as a component of a balanced diet. For consumption, each must be prepared and cooked as appropriate. Suitably cooked or otherwise prepared, the nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is widely different from that of raw form and depends on the methods of preparation such as soaking, fermentation, sprouting, boiling, or baking. 200 thousand tonnes by 2010.

This is equivalent to the replacement of 10 million tonnes of petroleum. 200 thousand tons, which would need an average of 1. 5 million tons of cassava. Cassava tubers and hay are used worldwide as animal feed.