This article is semi-mechanical engineering hand tools pdf until March 25, 2018. This article is about devices designed to perform tasks.
Modern machines are complex systems that consist of structural elements, mechanisms and control components and include interfaces for convenient use. However, the Ancient Greeks probably borrowed the word “mekhane” from the ancient Hebrews. The ancient Greeks were familiar with the Hebrew scriptures and language, and often borrowed words and terms. A wider meaning of “fabric, structure” is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage. This meaning is found in late medieval French, and is adopted from the French into English in the mid-16th century. 16th and early 17th centuries.
Machine, or Engine, in Mechanicks, is whatsoever hath Force sufficient either to raise or stop the Motion of a Body Simple Machines are commonly reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. Ballance, Leaver, Pulley, Wheel, Wedge, and Screw Compound Machines, or Engines, are innumerable. A wedge is a simple machine that transforms lateral force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting force and movement of the workpiece. 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever, pulley, and screw. 1782, which made the double acting steam engine practical.
1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. Simple machines provide a “vocabulary” for understanding more complex machines. The available power is limited by the effort of the person using the tool, but because power is the product of force and movement, the wedge amplifies the force by reducing the movement. This is a body that pivots on a fulcrum. Because the velocity of a point farther from the pivot is greater than the velocity of a point near the pivot, forces applied far from the pivot are amplified near the pivot by the associated decrease in speed. To see this notice that the friction associated with pulling a load on the ground is approximately the same as the friction in a simple bearing that supports the load on the axle of a wheel. However, the wheel forms a lever that magnifies the pulling force so that it overcomes the frictional resistance in the bearing.