Properties of electromagnetic waves pdf

Historically, another important source of light for humans has been fire, from ancient campfires to modern kerosene lamps. For example, fireflies use light to locate mates, and vampire squids use it to hide themselves from prey. The behavior of EMR depends on properties of electromagnetic waves pdf wavelength.

Higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, and lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. When EMR interacts with single atoms and molecules, its behavior depends on the amount of energy per quantum it carries. There exist animals that are sensitive to various types of infrared, but not by means of quantum-absorption. EMR in this range causes molecular vibration and heating effects, which is how these animals detect it.

Above the range of visible light, ultraviolet light becomes invisible to humans, mostly because it is absorbed by the cornea below 360 nanometers and the internal lens below 400. The fixed value of the speed of light in SI units results from the fact that the metre is now defined in terms of the speed of light. All forms of electromagnetic radiation move at exactly this same speed in vacuum. However, its size was not known at that time. Fizeau directed a beam of light at a mirror several kilometers away. Fizeau found that at a certain rate of rotation, the beam would pass through one gap in the wheel on the way out and the next gap on the way back. 1877 until his death in 1931.

4 of that in vacuum. However, the popular description of light being “stopped” in these experiments refers only to light being stored in the excited states of atoms, then re-emitted at an arbitrary later time, as stimulated by a second laser pulse. During the time it had “stopped” it had ceased to be light. An example of refraction of light. The straw appears bent, because of refraction of light as it enters liquid from air. Refraction is the bending of light rays when passing through a surface between one transparent material and another. When a beam of light crosses the boundary between a vacuum and another medium, or between two different media, the wavelength of the light changes, but the frequency remains constant.

There are many sources of light. As the temperature increases, the peak shifts to shorter wavelengths, producing first a red glow, then a white one, and finally a blue-white colour as the peak moves out of the visible part of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. These colours can be seen when metal is heated to “red hot” or “white hot”. Atoms emit and absorb light at characteristic energies. Some substances emit light slowly after excitation by more energetic radiation. Phosphorescent materials can also be excited by bombarding them with subatomic particles.