Qualities of air” redirects here. Composition of Earth’s atmosphere by volume. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0. 2009, and seating chart radio city pdf not represent any single source.
By volume, dry air contains 78. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5. Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Water vapor accounts for roughly 0.
Water vapor is about 0. Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.
In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere. Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another. Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space. The exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible.
The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth. The thermosphere is the second-highest layer of Earth’s atmosphere. The height of the thermopause varies considerably due to changes in solar activity. The temperature of the thermosphere gradually increases with height. Although the thermosphere has a high proportion of molecules with high energy, it would not feel hot to a human in direct contact, because its density is too low to conduct a significant amount of energy to or from the skin. This layer is completely cloudless and free of water vapor. The mesosphere is the third highest layer of Earth’s atmosphere, occupying the region above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere.
These are the highest clouds in the atmosphere and may be visible to the naked eye if sunlight reflects off them about an hour or two after sunset or a similar length of time before sunrise. They are most readily visible when the Sun is around 4 to 16 degrees below the horizon. It is too high above Earth to be accessible to jet-powered aircraft and balloons, and too low to permit orbital spacecraft. The stratosphere is the second-lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere. It contains the ozone layer, which is the part of Earth’s atmosphere that contains relatively high concentrations of that gas. The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rise with increasing altitude. The stratospheric temperature profile creates very stable atmospheric conditions, so the stratosphere lacks the weather-producing air turbulence that is so prevalent in the troposphere.
Consequently, the stratosphere is almost completely free of clouds and other forms of weather. The stratosphere is the highest layer that can be accessed by jet-powered aircraft. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere. Although variations do occur, the temperature usually declines with increasing altitude in the troposphere because the troposphere is mostly heated through energy transfer from the surface. The troposphere is denser than all its overlying atmospheric layers because a larger atmospheric weight sits on top of the troposphere and causes it to be most severely compressed.