Signals and systems schaum series pdf

In nature, signals can take the form of any action by one organism able to be perceived by other organisms, ranging from the release of chemicals by plants to alert nearby plants of the same type of a predator, to sounds or motions made by animals to alert other animals of the presence of danger signals and systems schaum series pdf of food. Definitions specific to sub-fields are common.

Signals can be categorized in various ways. The most common distinction is between discrete and continuous spaces that the functions are defined over, for example discrete and continuous time domains. A second important distinction is between discrete-valued and continuous-valued. In other contexts, digital signals are defined as the continuous-time waveform signals in a digital system, representing a bit-stream. A digital signal has two or more distinguishable waveforms, in this example, high voltage and low voltages, each of which can be mapped onto a digit. Characteristically, noise can be removed from digital signals provided it is not too large.

The figure shows a digital signal that results from approximating an analog signal by its values at particular time instants. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal’s information. The voltage or the current is said to be an “analog” of the sound. Alternatively, a digital signal may be considered to be the sequence of codes represented by such a physical quantity. The resulting stream of numbers is stored as digital data on a discrete-time and quantized-amplitude signal.

If a signal is to be represented as a sequence of numbers, it is impossible to maintain exact precision – each number in the sequence must have a finite number of digits. Quantization is the process of converting a continuous analog audio signal to a digital signal with discrete numerical values. The motion of an object can be considered to be a signal, and can be monitored by various sensors to provide electrical signals. A picture or image consists of a brightness or color signal, a function of a two-dimensional location. The object’s appearance is presented as an emitted or reflected electromagnetic wave, one form of electronic signal.

A video signal is a sequence of images. A point in a video is identified by its two-dimensional position and by the time at which it occurs, so a video signal has a three-dimensional domain. The domain is more difficult to establish. A typical role for signals is in signal processing. A common example is signal transmission between different locations. EE careers, and is dreaded by some students as such.