According to a 2002 report by the U. 20th century to describe people who pester and harass others, initially with specific reference to the harassment of celebrities by strangers who were described as being “obsessed”. As time went by, the meaning of stalking changed and incorporated individuals being harassed by their former partners. Pathé and Mullen describe the night stalker book pdf as “a constellation of behaviours in which an individual inflicts upon another repeated unwanted intrusions and communications”.
Unlike other crimes, which usually involve one act, stalking is a series of actions that occur over a period of time. Although stalking is illegal in most areas of the world, some of the actions that can contribute to stalking can be legal, such as gathering information, calling someone on the phone, sending gifts, emailing, or instant messaging. They become illegal when they breach the legal definition of harassment e. In fact, United Kingdom law states the incident only has to happen twice when the stalker should be aware their behavior is unacceptable e.
2005, amending a United States statute, 108 Stat. Stalking can sometimes consist of an accumulation of a series of actions which in themselves can be legal, such as calling on the phone, sending gifts, or sending emails. Stalkers may use threats and violence to frighten their victims. Less common are sexual assaults. In the UK, for example, most stalkers are former partners and evidence indicates that the mentally ill stalking type of behaviour propagated in the media occurs in only a minority of cases of alleged stalking. Protection from Harassment Act stated: “The study found that the Protection from Harassment Act is being used to deal with a variety of behaviour such as domestic and inter-neighbour disputes.
It is rarely used for stalking as portrayed by the media since only a small minority of cases in the survey involved such behaviour. Stalking has also been described as a form of close relationship between the parties, albeit a disjunctive one where the two participants have opposing goals rather than cooperative goals. One participant, often a woman, likely wishes to end the relationship entirely, but may find herself unable to easily do so. The other participant, often but not always a man, wishes to escalate the relationship. It has been described as a close relationship because the duration, frequency, and intensity of contact may rival that of a more traditional conjunctive dating relationship.